September 12, 2012
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD007146. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007146.pub3. As people get older, they may fall more often for a variety of reasons including problems with balance, poor vision, and dementia. Up to 30% may fall per year. Although one in five falls may require medical attention, less than one in 10 results in a fracture. Fear of falling can result in self-restricted activity levels. It may not be possible to prevent falls completely, but people who tend to fall frequently may be enabled to fall less often. This review looked at which methods are effective for older people living in the community, and includes 111 randomised controlled trials, with a … Read moreCategory: Falls Prevention, Publication
Changes in executive functions and self-efficacy are independently associated with improved usual gait speed in older women.
May 19, 2010
BMC Geriatr. 2010 May 19;10:25. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-25. Background Improved usual gait speed predicts substantial reduction in mortality. A better understanding of the modifiable factors that are independently associated with improved gait speed would ensure that intervention strategies are developed based on a valid theoretical framework. Thus, we examined the independent association of change in executive functions and change in falls-related self-efficacy with improved gait speed among community-dwelling senior women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 135 senior women aged 65 to 75 years old who completed a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. Usual gait speed was assessed using a 4-meter walk. Three executive processes were assessed by standard neuropsychological … Read moreCategory: Publication
Otago Home-Based Strength and Balance Retraining Improves Executive Functioning in Older Fallers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
September 15, 2008
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Volume 56, Issue 10, October 2008. Effective falls prevention exercise programs, such as the Otago Exercise Program (OEP), consist of resistance training and balance training exercises. The current thought is that these types of exercises reduce falls by improving physiology functions, although improved cognitive functions, specifically improved executive functioning, may be another mechanism by which these types of exercises reduce falls in older adults. However, this research question has been largely unaddressed, because few exercise trials of falls prevention have included measure of cognitive function. Furthermore, no previous study of the influence of exercise on cognition has specifically included older adults with a history of falls. Background … Read moreCategory: Adding Quality to Later Life Years, Falls Prevention, Publication
A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community.
September 29, 1994
N Engl J Med. 1994 Sep 29;331(13):821-7. Background Since falling is associated with serious morbidity among elderly people, we investigated whether the risk of falling could be reduced by modifying known risk factors. Methods We studied 301 men and women living in the community who were at least 70 years of age and who had at least one of the following risk factors for falling: postural hypotension; use of sedatives; use of at least four prescription medications; and impairment in arm or leg strength or range of motion, balance, ability to move safely from bed to chair or to the bathtub or toilet (transfer skills), or gait. These subjects were given … Read moreCategory: Falls Prevention, Publication